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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS)


Article Title: Correlational Analysis of Sewage Disposal Methods and Incidence Rates of Typhoid Fever and Cholera in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria
by I. Tamunobereton-ari; E. D. Uko, and O. I. Horsfall

This work of correlating incidence rates of typhoid fever and cholera to sewage disposal methods was necessitated by the observed occurrence of typhoid fever and cholera incidences with respect to sewage management approaches. The aim of the work was achieved by observations, interviews and medical records of 25 years (1986 to 2010) from two major health facilities of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) and Braithwaite Memorial Hospital (BMH). The purpose of this work is to highlight the typhoid fever and cholera consequences resulting from improper disposal of sewage. In the first sewage management regime where pit latrines, bucket latrine and pier latrines were used, records show incidence rates of 49% typhoid and 51% cholera for UPTH and 53% typhoid and 47% cholera for BMH. The second sewage management regime where water carriage/closet systems of sewage disposal systems and septic tanks were used, the incidence rate of typhoid fever was 94% and cholera was 6% for both UPTH and BMH. This implies evident correlation of incidences of typhoid fever and cholera with sewage disposal methods in time and space. The increases in the incidences of typhoid fever and cholera are majorly underpinned by poverty, poor food hygiene, poor water sanitation, and generally poor environmental sanitation. Water carriage/closet systems of sewage disposal are here recommended to reduce contamination of food, surface and ground water by sewage.
Keywords: sewage, typhoid fever, cholera, incidence rate, septic tank, water borehole, buffer distance
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ISSN: 2141-7016

Editor in Chief.

Prof. Gui Yun Tian
Professor of Sensor Technologies
School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
University of Newcastle
United Kingdom



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