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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS)

ISSN:2141-7016

Article Title: The Impacts of Oil Spill and Soil Factors on Trace Metals in Sediments (Soils) Of Abakaliki and Afikpo, Nigeria
by Omaka, Ndukaku Omaka; Igidi, John Orji; Iyke, Frank Nwabue and Itumoh, Emeka Jude

Abstract:
This paper examines the concern that the concentrations of trace metals in sediments can occur as a result of petroleum exploration, oil spill and their related activities. In response to this concern, soil samples collected from three different study areas of Abakaliki, Apojo and Idembia were spiked with Nigerian crude oil (Forcados) and disused engine oil (Total 250 Premium engine oil) and the concentrations of six metals, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer after hot 1:3 HNO3:HCl (aqua regia) digestion. On the basis of field study, the outcome of the study reviewed that the concentrations of the trace metals increased as well as decreased as a result of the oil spill; which revealed the roles played by various soil factors such as the Fe-Mn contents, proportion of clay particles, pH and redox potential. Mn concentrations in all the samples were significantly related to soil pH (r =0.52) over the pH range 6.8-7.8 and Mn showed significantly higher concentrations than all the other metals (24.4112 mg kg-1) which is probably due to variations of redox potential since Mn is the most susceptible element to redox potential changes. The decreased concentrations of Pb and Cd from the results were probably due to the formation of strong organo-Pb and organo-Cd complexes from the soil organic material as well as organic and inorganic ligands from the oils. Fe concentrations showed a significantly negative correlation with Mn (r = -0.33) and it appeared that the higher the concentrations of Mn, the lower the concentrations of Fe. On the basis of statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to show some degree of relationships between the spiked and unspiked samples in each of the soil sample analyzed. The analysis showed high degree of correlation; r = 0.9783 and r = 0.9805 in the sand and clay samples respectively and low degree of correlation; r = 0.4439 in the dumpsite sample (for the crude oil spiked samples). The crude oil spill had much effect on the concentration of trace metals analyzed in the sand and clay samples but little effect on dumpsite sample probably due to the effects of decomposing organic material on this site which reduced the mobility of these metals on the top soil. The effects of the disused engine oil on the concentration of analyzed trace metals were very high; r = 0.9795 (dumpsite sample), r = 0.9770 (sandy sample) and r = 0.7728 (clay sample). The nutrient analysis showed that accumulated soil nutrients, applied manures and fertilizers; and high atmospheric depositions of NOx and NH3 represent potential sources of N and P in the samples analyzed. Calibration curves were established with five standards for each group of N and P, with concentrations ranging from 0.1-2.0 ppm. The detector response was linear over the range of concentration studied for each group with correlation coefficients > 0.99.
Keywords: : oil spill and contamination; soil factors; trace metals; sediments; sandy soil; clay soil; dumpsite humus; abakaliki; apojo and idembia
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ISSN: 2141-7016

Editor in Chief.

Prof. Gui Yun Tian
Professor of Sensor Technologies
School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
University of Newcastle
United Kingdom

 

 

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