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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS)

ISSN:2141-7016

Article Title: Development and Evaluation of a Biomass Stove
by V. I. Umogbai and J. G. Orkuma

Abstract:
Locally fabricated biomass stoves have become household items in Nigeria. The fabricated stoves are usually made by local artisans who have little or no knowledge of engineering principles and methods. A portable "improved cookstove" (ICS) that incorporates a cylindrical ceramic combustion chamber into a framed cylindrical metal casing for cladding and ease of handling was developed and tested in the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture Makurdi. A modified University of California water boiling test (WBT) version 4.12 was used for testing of the stove. The results obtained from tests carried out on the improved cookstove were compared with the traditional 3-stone stove. The result of the cold start test indicates that the ICS used an average of 69g of wood to boil 1 liter of water in about 8 min (5 liters in 38 min) as against 326g of wood to boil the same 1 liter of water in about 25 min(5 liters in 126 min) using the 3-stone stove. This indicates that the ICS is superior to the 3-stone stove in specific fuel consumption in the high power (cold start) phase. The average rate of wood consumption (burning rate) was higher for the 3-stone stove (10.1g/min) than the ICS (6.7 g/min) indicating better performance of over the 3-stone stove. Analysis showed that the performance of the ICS is statistically significant at t95 but not at t99 against the 3-stone stove; (burning less wood per unit time to accomplish the same task). The thermal efficiency of the ICS (67%) was better than the 3-stone stove (16%) and statistics at both t95 and t99 showed a significant difference of such superiority of the ICS over the 3-stone stove for thermal efficiency. The firepower of the 3-stone fire stove (3422kW) was higher than the ICS (2192kW) which is in agreement with the burning rate as the 3-stone fire consumed more wood per unit time for the same task. The test results of the high power hot start phase showed that the average rate of wood consumption (burning rate) was higher for the 3-stone stove (10.1g/min) than the ICS (3.9 g/min). The firepower of the 3-stone stove (1270kW) was lower than the ICS (3277kW). The average thermal efficiency for this phase was 66% for the ICS and 16% for the 3-stone fire stove. In most aspects of stove performance the ICS was better than the 3-stone fire stove and thus it is recommended for use.
Keywords: biomass, stove, design, construction, testing
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ISSN: 2141-7016

Editor in Chief.

Prof. Gui Yun Tian
Professor of Sensor Technologies
School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
University of Newcastle
United Kingdom

 

 

Copyright © Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences 2010