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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS)


Article Title: Major Ionic Composition of Jizan Thermal Springs, Saudi Arabia
by M. T. Hussein and Omer A. Loni

Jizan thermal springs are located in the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia. The springs flow through fractures within the Precambrian- Cambrian Arabian Shield rocks that occupy the eastern boundary of the Red Sea Plate boundary. The springs are characterized with temperatures that vary from 40 to 75 degrees Celsius. The groundwater in the area is subjected to sea water intrusion, mixing and dissolution of salts. Depletion of (Ca+Mg) and enrichment of (Na+K) in thermal waters is the result of an interaction of CO2 with water and rocks. In fact, CO2-rich water facilitates CaNa exchange processes in feldspars and clay minerals. The thermal springs, having a lower (Cl+SO4)/HCO3 ratio (0.38 to 0.56), higher (Na+K)/ (Ca+Mg) ratio (>4) and Cl>SO4, are chemically distinct from the groundwater. The enrichment of NaHCO3 in thermal spring samples relative to groundwater could, therefore, be a residual feature caused by CaCO3 precipitation at relatively high temperatures within the thermal circuits in which CO2 tends to rise to the surface.
Keywords: jizan thermal springs, feldspars, ionic composition, clay minerals
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ISSN: 2141-7016

Editor in Chief.

Prof. Gui Yun Tian
Professor of Sensor Technologies
School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
University of Newcastle
United Kingdom



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