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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS)


Article Title: Production Economy of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia Amygdalina) as Dietary Additive Fed to Clarias Gariepinus
by Adeyemo Muniru Adewole

Antibiotic has been used to enhance physiological well-being in animal husbandry cum aquaculture; however resistance of pathogenic microorganisms resulting from its use poses serious challenges to both animal and human being. Man has used nature's resources to his benefit since creation; one of such resources is herbal additives that are readily available and effective with no residual effects, but there is little information on their utilization in fish farming in Nigeria. This study evaluated the utilization of powdered Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) on growth performance and production economy of Clarias gariepinus. Six isonitrogenous herbal diets (40% Crude protein), with the following inclusion levels (VAM1/Control; 0.00% - VAM6; 0.10%) were fed twice daily at 5% body weight to twenty Clarias gariepinus per treatment, in triplicates for 12 weeks. Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Mean Feed Intake (MFI), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Profit indices (PI), Cost Benefit Ratio (Ber) and water parameters were determined using standard methods. Results obtained showed that VAM4 diet gave the highest MWG (65.02+_1.70g); SGR (0.87+_0.01%/day); PER (0.96+_.01); and lowest FCR (2.57+_0.04) but highest PI (6.4) and Ber (1.63) respectively as compared with others diets. However the highest MFI (138.251.57) was recorded from fish fed VAM5 diet and least from VAM1 (106.32+_1.73). Values for DO, PH and Temperature ranged from 6.67 mg/l (VAM1) - 6.82mg/l(VAM6), 5.56(VAM1-6.87(VAM2) and 26.670C (VAM2) - 26.810C(VAM1) respectively. These parameters of the culture water values were within the range recommended for catfish. The use of bitter leaf improves the rearing indices and profitability of catfish production; therefore, its adoption along integrated farming in sustainable agriculture and ethnomedicine development is advocated to reduce poverty and enhance human building capacity.
Keywords: dietary supplement, drug discovery, performance indices, phytotherapy, fish nutrition
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ISSN: 2141-7016

Editor in Chief.

Prof. Gui Yun Tian
Professor of Sensor Technologies
School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering
University of Newcastle
United Kingdom



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